In another study, it was reported that the hydrogenases isolated from phototrophic bacteria were able to reduce Ni+2 to Ni0 under an H2 atmosphere . Microbial metal reduction can be a strategy for remediation of metal contaminations and wastes. At acidic pH, spherical gold NPs (less than 10 nm diameter) were produced, but at pH 7.0 and 9.0, a mixture of smaller (~10 nm) and bigger (~50 nm) well-defined triangles, hexagons, and rods were formed. Microbial synthesis of elemental selenium (Se0) nanospheres resulted in unique, complex, compacted nanostructured arrangements of Se atoms. It seems that surfactants and organic solvents can be used for both extraction and stabilization of NPs, but these chemical materials are toxic, expensive, and hazardous. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were capable of producing magnetic iron sulfide (FeS) NPs. It was reported that Bacillus subtilis 168 was able to reduce Au3+ ions to octahedral gold NPs (~5–25 nm) within bacterial cells by incubation of the cells with gold chloride under ambient temperature and pressure conditions [20, 21]. Quantum dots, also known as nanodots and semiconductor nanocrystals, possess unique properties which make them very useful to many areas of industry, especially medicine. Moreover, it was proven that glutathione synthetase overexpression in ABLEC E. coli strains, in conjunction with metal stress, simultaneously enhanced the biosynthesis of intracellular glutathione and CdS NPs . First, the Pt+4 ions were reduced to Pt+2 by an oxygen-sensitive cytoplasmic hydrogenase. Nanoscience and nanotechnology has attracted a great interest over the last few years due to its potential impact on many scientific areas such as energy, medicine, pharmaceutical industries, electronics, and space industries. These NPs were lighter in weight and have high resistance to corrosion and have enormous applications in automobiles, missiles, airplanes, submarines, cathode ray tubes, and desalting plants and have promising future role in cancer chemotherapy and gene delivery. The color of the bioreduction system changed from pale yellow to dark yellow. These experiments have shown that CdS nanocrystals could be synthesized following Cd2+ and S2− ions transported into the cells. The authors elucidated that the red colored Se0 nanospheres may serve as a biosensor for nanotoxicity assessment, contemplating the inhibition of bioreduction process in NPs treated bacterial cell culture supernatant, as a toxicity end point. (7)Scaling up the laboratory process to the industrial scale. The stability of these NPs might be due to the proteins and enzymes secreted by the microorganisms. at room temperature . investigated the influence of pH on Au (III) bioreduction using E. coli and D. desulfuricans.  controlled morphology of gold NPs using filamentous cyanobacteria, such as Plectonema boryanum UTEX 485. They found that bacterial cells were capable of binding large quantities of metallic cations. The biogenic NPs were released by liquid nitrogen and purified by an n-octyl alcohol water extraction system. Interestingly, association of proteins with spheroidal aggregates of biogenic zinc sulfide nanocrystals documented that extracellular proteins originated from microorganisms could limit the biogenic NPs . Mechanisms of gold accumulation by the cyanobacteria studied from gold chloride initially promoted the precipitation of amorphous gold sulfide at the cell walls and finally deposited metallic gold in octahedral form near the cell surfaces and in solutions . Bacteria are considered as a potential biofactory for the synthesis of NPs like gold, silver, platinum, palladium, titanium, titanium dioxide, magnetite, cadmium sulphide, and so forth. A more fundamental investigation in the assembly of single-domain magnetite particles into folded-chain and flux-closure ring morphologies by harvested magnetotactic bacterium, Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum, was carried out by Philipse and Maas . Bio-based approaches are still in the development stages, and stability and aggregation of the biosynthesized NPs, control of crystal growth, shape, size, and size distribution are the most important experienced problems. They monitored iron reduction kinetics with soluble electron acceptors such as ferric citrate, ferrihydrite colloids, and solid ferrihydrite. We enable the smooth and safe operation of power plants through innovative water-treatment and wastewater reuse. In case of Bacillus flexus, spherical and triangular shaped silver NPs (~12–65 nm) were successfully biosynthesized. After that, ATP sulfurylase and phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate reductase reduced sulfate to sulfite, and sulfite reductase reduced sulfite to sulfide which reacted with O-acetylserine to synthesize cysteine via O-acetylserine thiol lyase. Rhodopseudomonas capsulata showed the ability to produce gold NPs in different sizes, and the shape of gold NPs was controlled by pH . DuPont™, the DuPont Oval Logo, and all trademarks and service marks denoted with ™, ℠ or ® are owned by affiliates of DuPont de Nemours, Inc. unless otherwise noted. Because of its exceptional properties, FilmTec™ technology can help lower capital investment, reduce operating costs, and allow for greater flexibility for future system expansion. B. James, J. M. Charnock, and D. C. Ellwoods, “Adsorption of radioactive metals by strongly magnetic iron sulfide nanoparticles produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria,”, D. R. Lovley and E. J. P. Phillips, “Novel mode of microbial energy metabolism: organic carbon oxidation coupled to dissimilatory reduction of iron or manganese,”, D. R. Lovley, E. J. P. Phillips, and D. J. Lonergan, “Hydrogen and formate oxidation coupled to dissimilatory reduction of iron or manganese by, D. R. Lovley, E. J. P. Phillips, D. J. Lonergan, and P. K. Widman, “Fe(III) and S0 reduction by, M. Jahn, S. Haderlein, and R. Meckenstock, “A novel mechanism of electron transfer from iron-reducing microorganisms to solid iron phases,”, E. E. Roden and D. R. Lovley, “Dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction by the marine microorganism, K. Kashefi and D. R. Lovley, “Reduction of Fe(III), Mn(IV), and toxic metals at 100°C by, T. L. Kieft, J. K. Fredrickson, T. C. Onstott et al., “Dissimilatory reduction of Fe(III) and other electron acceptors by a thermus isolate,”, S. V. Liu, J. Zhou, C. Zhang, D. R. Cole, M. Gajdarziska-Josifovska, and T. J. Phelps, “Thermophilic Fe(III)-reducing bacteria from the deep subsurface: the evolutionary implications,”, C. Zhang, S. Liu, J. Logan, R. Mazumder, and T. J. Phelps, “Enhancement of Fe(III), Co(III), and Cr(VI) reduction at elevated temperatures and by a thermophilic bacterium,”. These elements are available to ship dry. The maximum zone of inhibition was observed in the ZnO NPs (25 μg/mL) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (~ mm) and Aspergillus flavus (~ mm) . Under optimized conditions (solar intensity 70,000 lx, extract concentration 3 mg/mL, and NaCl content 2 mM), % of the Ag+ (1 mM) was reduced to silver NPs within 80 min. Gold NPs were biosynthesized both intracellularly and extracellularly, while silver NPs were exclusively formed extracellularly. Shapes and sizes of the NPs were not homogenous. FilmTec™ low-energy brackish water elements, which are designed specifically to meet emerging demand for lower-pressure RO system operation; these elements help reduce operating expense without sacrificing salt rejection or high productivity. The gold NPs were stable without any aggregation over a period of several weeks. It seems that several important technical challenges must be overcome before this green bio-based method will be a successful and competitive alternative for industrial synthesis of NPs. In addition, Sulfurospirillum barnesii, Bacillus selenitireducens, and Selenihalanaerobacter shriftii synthesized extracellularly stable uniform nanospheres (~300 nm) of elemental selenium Se0 with monoclinic crystalline structures . In some cases, researchers purified proteins which were believed to be responsible for nanoparticle synthesis. The important aspects which might be considered in the process of producing well-characterized NPs are as follows. 2014, Article ID 359316, 18 pages, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/359316, 1Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81744-176, Iran. Clostridium thermoaceticum (an acetogenic bacterium) showed the ability to grow autotrophically on CO2 and H2, utilizing the so-called Wood-Ljungdahl pathway to synthesize acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), a starting material for the anabolic processes of these cells . One of the options to achieve this objective is to use natural processes such as use of enzymes, microbial enzymes, vitamins, polysaccharides, biodegradable polymers, microorganisms, and biological systems for synthesis of NPs. Thus, optimization of the growth conditions is very important. Access our WAVE software for water treatment system design. The objects of recent studies tend to provide a controlled and up-scalable process for biosynthesis of monodispersed and highly stableNPs. Produce excellent membrane flux and salt rejection. At pH 7.0, biogenic gold NPs (~10–20 nm) were deposited in the periplasmic space of S. algae cells. The morphological characteristics were found to be spherical, oval in shape, individual NPs as well as a few aggregates having the size of 66–77 nm. The important challenges frequently encountered in the biosynthesis of NPs are to control the shape and size of the particles and to achieve the monodispersity in solution phase. Cell-free culture supernatants of five psychrophilic bacteria Phaeocystis antarctica, Pseudomonas proteolytica, Pseudomonas meridiana, Arthrobacter kerguelensis, and Arthrobacter gangotriensis and two mesophilic bacteria Bacillus indicus and Bacillus cecembensis have been used to biosynthesize silver NPs (~6–13 nm). The biosynthesized NPs were almost spherical, single (~25–50 nm), or in aggregates (~100 nm), attached to the surface of biomass or were inside and outside of the cells. The researchers of this study found that C-S-lyase (an intracellular enzyme located in the cytoplasm) was responsible for the synthesis of NPs. The localized reducing conditions generated by sulfate-reducing bacteria were associated with metabolism. Mutant strains produced highly catalytic Pd NPs by bioreduction of Pd (II). They explained that soluble sulfate diffused into immobilized beads and then was carried to the interior membrane of R. sphaeroides cell facilitated by sulfate permease. . Mullen et al. In another study, stable, predominantly monodispersed, and spherical selenium NPs (with an average size of 21 nm) were synthesized using the bacterial isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain JS-11. It was reported that the engineered E. coli system can be applicable to the biological synthesis of metal NPs . Moisescu et al. Ion Torrent Genexus System Specimen to report in a single day with a hands-off, automated workflow* The Genexus System is the first turnkey NGS solution that automates the specimen-to-report workflow and delivers results in a single day with just two user touchpoints. R. capsulate was capable of producing gold NPs extracellularly and the gold NPs were quite stable in the solution. The bacteria exhibited significant tolerance to selenite up to 100 mM concentration with an EC50 value of 140 mM. Thus, more elaborated studies are needed to know the exact mechanisms of reaction and identify the enzymes and proteins which involve nanoparticle biosynthesis. This process was energy dependent and required cysteine. In many industrial systems, RO elements also serve as pretreatment for ion exchange (IX) resin beds. The biosynthesis of extracellular silver-based single nanocrystallites of well-defined composition and homogeneous morphology utilizing the γ-proteobacterium, S. oneidensis MR-1, upon incubation with aqueous silver nitrate solution was reported. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the crystalline nature of the NPs, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed the morphology of the nanoparticle to be spherical, oval with an average size of 57.72 nm. Synthesis of semiconductor NPs such as CdS, ZnS, and PbS for application as quantum-dot fluorescent biomarkers and cell labeling agents was reported . Lioyd et al. When the pH was adjusted to 4, a number of nanoplates were observed in addition to the spherical gold NPs in the reaction solution. Most magnetite crystals in the cells were only slightly larger than 30 nm (super paramagnetic NPs) . In another study, tellurium-transforming Bacillus sp. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) using bacteria has emerged as rapidly developing research area in green nanotechnology across the globe with various biological entities being employed in synthesis of NPs constantly forming an impute alternative for conventional chemical and physical methods. Holmes et al. If a supervisor or the University owns it, it would have been formed with prior grants. FilmTec™ brackish water elements, which have an unsurpassed high-active membrane surface area that produces 99.5 percent or greater typical salt rejection performance. Thermophilic (45 to 75°C) bacteria showed the ability to reduce amorphous Fe (III)-oxyhydroxide to magnetic iron oxides . In another study, ZnS NPs (~ nm) were produced by using R. sphaeroides . We help improve the safety and quality of drinking water in homes with exceptional water treatment. 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