ancient computer found underground

Posted by on December 22, 2020  /   Posted in Uncategorized

"The advantage of diving in the water is that because of the ice there's no waves," said Harris, "so all of the particulate settles down on the seafloor and you have a really, really good visibility. The possibilities are boundless. The Antikythera, however, may have been built for a mix of business and pleasure. The Mary Rose, a 16th century English warship and the pearl of King Henry VIII's fleet, was sunk ten years before the Mars and salvaged thirty years before it. Should other bones be recovered, they will be subject to a vigorous recovery procedure to make sure there's no DNA cross-contamination between the dive workers and the bones themselves. Exploring another cave in Arkansas, just north of Batesville, explorers found a tunnel illuminated by a greenish phosphorescence where they met a race of beings who stood 7 to 8 feet tall and had bluish skin. In time, however, the BlueView point cloud will be merged with that from the multibeam sonar so the two technologies can fill in any gaps from each other. "We could see, for example, a herringbone pattern of diagonally-laid upper decking, which is a laminate construction, sort of a second layer of decking laid over the first. Thousands more photos have been added since, and divers will carry on adding more, thanks to funding from both National Geographic North European Fund and Waitt Institute. Why was the Anitkythera so large? Multibeam sonars can be either mounted on the underside of a ship or on an ROV and, by emitting sound waves and recording how long and from what direction they bounce off a surface and return, can build up a 3D picture of the sea floor. Franklin's two ships were some of the first polar vessels to be equipped with steam engines--repurposed railway engines--leaving port with 12 days coal aboard, for example, as well as state-of-the-art Massey double action bilge pumps. It was that phenomenal feeling of making contact with this icon of maritime history," said Harris. "It's fun for us, because we feel like we've opened up a whole new vista on the past. By focusing excavation efforts on areas that show a higher density of metal, the excavations could potentially turn up more fragments of the Antikythera mechanism (only half of the system has been recovered to date). The advent of computing began before the birth of Jesus, with a small bronze mechanism that was lost under the sea off Crete for over a thousand years. A second wreck--mentioned in passing by Cousteau's team but never really explored--had been keeping the first, better-explored ship company all these years, practically untouched. There was an attempt to make Sweden a European superpower and Mars was part of that concept ... maybe the biggest ship in the world in the 1560s.". The exosuit is a small wearable submarine that keeps the diver's air at the same atmospheric pressure as it is in the water. When Cousteau's team had spotted the second wreck, they saw amphorae that looked probably Roman in origin--meaning the wreck could date from any time up to the fourth century BCE. A piece of the ship's hull 40 meters long had appeared, giving the first suggestion that the team had finally stumbled on the flagship of Swedish King Erik the XIV's fleet. We can't even imagine. if you're trying to steer a survey line and not run into an island, 4km is fairly significant," said Ryan Harris, who led the Parks Canada team. Computer . Eager to find out more about this enigmatic antique, researchers are returning to the wreckage with the aid of a sophisticated diving suit that is taking them deeper than they’ve ever been before. Having spotted the wreck, the team sent down an ROV for a closer look. Now, after time and technology has moved on, the Greek government invited a team from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), headed by Dr. Brendan Foley, to begin the first significant excavation of the wreck since the Frenchman's over 40 years ago. Image: Theresa Nichols, Fisheries and Oceans Canada. It's at 70 meters depth, it's totally, totally dark in the Baltic Sea. A four man team--Richard Lundgren, Fredrik Skogh, Christoffer Modig, Anton Petersson--were on board the ship when it found the Mars, and sent a picture of the scan to Ingemar Lundren, who was processing images from the vessel onshore. While the lidar systems weren't expected to be able to pick up signs of a wreck, they could help the team put together better maps of the region, which is still largely uncharted even today. Foley team set about circumnavigating the island of Antikythera, off whose coast the wreck lay, carrying out technical dives over a period of eight days, where they mapped everything human-made from the sea's surface down to its floor, 45 meters below. Due to the depth of the wreck and the diving technology of the period, divers could only spend a handful of minutes investigating the ship at a time or risk the bends that proved fatal to the first expedition. A lost piece of the world’s oldest analog computer (the Antikythera mechanism an ancient Greek device designed to calculate astronomical position) may have been discovered. The residents decided to do the underground sub-city thing in style and had a movie theater, a bar, and a cafe. Excavations have also uncovered vast plumbing systems, baths and fountains at ancient Olympia. "We've been taking this steady incremental approach to the shipwreck, building the foundation of knowledge about it, then posing specific research questions, trying to answer them, and seeing what the next phase brings. During a few days in June, the robot created 10,500 square meters of map, with a resolution of 2mm. Having found the Mars after a two-decade search, Ocean Discovery found that they weren't the only wreckhunters who were in the region. The similarities between the two wrecks raised questions. "Putting humans in the water is always the option of last resort because we have to eat, we have to poop, we get tired and we're really not that efficient underwater. Amanda Kooser. The first Antikythera wreck has already yielded amphora, the "55 gallon drum of antiquity", table jugs known as lagynos, and unguentaria--the small bottles that would hold medicines, cosmetics or perfumes. It is unclear how this intricate device ended up in the hands of Romans, but some believe the ill-fated ship was transferring a woman of importance to be married in Rome. By Jo Best on October 31, 2015. The Antikythera mechanism – a Greek ancient computer The Antikythera mechanism has been labeled the first mechanical computer. and we said no, we're not going to do that, we're going to salvage as much information as possible from the wreck instead and leave it on the sea bottom. Was it the Svärdet they had found? Absolute confirmation would require human divers. As it has every year since since 2012, the team returned to Antikythera this summer to probe the wreck further, examining the area between the two wrecks and using both human divers and robots. The ROV surveying couldn't prove it was the Mars, it could only prove it was a large warship," Lundgren added. In the Victoria Strait search site, there was too much ice to deploy it; in the Queen Maud Gulf, the waters were too shallow for it to be used safely. Hidden underground chambers dating back 2,000 years have been discovered near the Western Wall in Jerusalem. Thanks to carbon dating, we know that this booty-laden ship sank around 60 B.C. The team is using an autonomous underwater vehicle equipped with stereo cameras. The Inuit reported seeing one of the ships go down off the coast of King William island in around 1850, and they would be the last humans to lay eyes on the vessels for the century and a half that followed. The 19th century saw the birth of polar exploration, as maritime nations rushed to stake their claim on the unknown winter continents. That's where we're able us to use different technological approaches to document the site that work a lot a better.". ", Cover photo credit: Kirill Egorov, MARS 2015. "On the 3D photo we can zoom in and see the coins laying there all around the sea bottom," said Rönnby. The Antikythera mechanism was named after the shipwreck on which it was discovered. The technology may have been some of the best out there, but even it could be bested by Arctic conditions. A Secret Tunnel Found in Mexico May Finally Solve the Mysteries of Teotihuacán The chance discovery beneath a nearly 2,000-year-old pyramid leads to the heart of a lost civilization ", Inside the Raspberry Pi: The story of the $35 computer that changed the world, Can Russian hackers be stopped? 'First Ever Etruscan Pyramids Found in Italy'. It’s one of the strangest—and most amazing—things ever recovered from the bottom of the sea, because it is purported to have been built in 2nd-century BC. So far, a not-to-scale section of the hull and one of the guns have been printed out. With ice making the areas inaccessible for much of the year, the archaeologists had only a handful of weeks at a time to hunt for the missing ships. Those that have already been exploring the photo mosaic have been doing so at their desks, looking for artefacts or other elements the divers may have missed. The imagery could equally be used to build a 3D visualisation that visitors could manipulate and explore themselves, putting themselves at the heart of history. While the researchers have no idea what they may happen upon in the wreckage, any extra information that can help explain the device’s extraordinary first century B.C. She was more than 60 meters long and very modern-equipped.". "It's more technology for locating, not for marine archaeological survey.". The flames ignited the gunpowder stored on the ship causing a huge explosion that blew out the stern of the ship and took her, and the men aboard her--the Swedish sailors and invading forces alike--to the bottom of the ocean. We were filming for an hour but we didn't see any cannons. Combined with the million photos taken by divers, a map that's precise to two millimeters has been built up--higher resolution than the multibeam. In the best vision we have of this, we'll have have a data manager incorporating everything we're doing daily," said Foley. World's First Computer Rebuilt, Rebooted After 2,000 Years A British museum curator has built a working replica of a 2,000-year-old Greek machine that has been called the world’s first computer. What kind of things? Antikythera Mechanism, ... were the first civilizations to have underground pipes, carrying water. Underground continents deep in Earth's belly may have formed when an ancient ocean of magma solidified on the surface of the baby planet 4.5 billion years ago, according to a new study. The antikythera mechanism, which was found inside a Roman shipwreck near the Greek island of Antikythera, is an ancient computer thought to be at least 2,000 years old. Investigators had only scratched the surface of the Antikythera in the last nearly two thousand years. In 1986, it eventually rose to the surface and beached itself on the shore of the Sea of Galilee. "All those data at the end of the day are incorporated into the maps. The ancient coil-shaped artifacts were found in Russia’s Ural Mountains. "Even the maps for the coastline of this area weren't terribly accurate. But to the researchers, the real treasure is the missing pieces of the mechanism. Everything was just so picture perfect. The company developed a longer range scanner for the Franklin expedition, which can map up to a five meter range with millimeter resolution, used to image the outside of the wreck. "They were one of the first things we saw as we crept over the seafloor to the site. As well as documenting the outside of Erebus and its location, the Parks Canada team face the difficulty of navigating within the ship itself, mapping the location of the objects within it and any subtle associations with them. Further dives in the weeks following after the discovery of the wreck were used to map the wreck's guns, and found that some bore the Vasa coat of arms. "It looks like a chest exploded with silver coins.". Since the discovery, archaeologists have found over 50 historical artifacts in the underground city and most of them have already been persevered. The divers move through the water, iPad in hand, looking for the points of interest from the heat maps, and checking their position against those locations as they go. When we first got to Antikythera in 2012, one of the questions we had was, does the island hold a whole lot of submerged cultural resources or is this the only shipwreck out there?" Like the mechanism that it carried, the Antikythera is unique for its time period. The telltale details of the ship emerged. The team had another novel piece of technology at its disposal: a 7.5-meter autonomous underwater vehicle, the Arctic Explorer. Unless a whaling ship had made it up to the Queen Maud Gulf without being noticed, the team were likely to be the first people to see either the Erebus or the Terror in over 160 years. Police found more than just homes down there, though. "There are guns still sitting in wood, and cannonballs have penetrated into the hull. If the ship had to carry statues, some up to three meters tall, they'd have to be packed well to prevent damage in transit. Ancient underground lakes discovered on Mars. LISTEN: Free audio story: The 2,000 year old computer that's rewriting human history. In 1953 and 1976, marine explorer Jacques Cousteau led the next expeditions to the wreck, bringing an assortment of objects, including more statues, coins, and gemstones. What are they actually importing and exporting, what are they producing, what are they consuming? They were off by about 4km. "It's fun for us," said Foley, "because we feel like we've opened up a whole new vista on the past, and we can generate hard data on these early economies. However, often they're used as observers, with the most difficult work still done by humans. It was built by the King Erik the XIV, who was son of Gustav Vasa--Vasa is our Tudor dynasty. The detailed way the way the wreck has been mapped means that it can be brought to the surface in a new way: with 3D printing. As the ship was loaded up with grain, which could take a couple of months, they would tour around and then get back on the ship at the end of the season.". Thought to have been built at the end of the second century BCE, the Antikythera mechanism is considered the first programmable computer. If an object located on a 2D image is worthy of further scrutiny, its location can be found using the multibeam, and a diver sent down to precisely the right place. Using an algorithm called SLAM (simultaneous localisation and mapping), the imagery from the stereo cameras can be knitted together to make an extremely precise map of the seafloor. It's absolutely typical of royal navy dockyard modifications for Arctic service," said Harris. The history of the Erebus and Terror has been built up piecemeal since the ships were lost, using testimony from local Inuit, the objects left behind by the crew on their desperate journey, and even notes written by the acting captains following the death of Sir John Franklin, the expedition's captain. That has been an important part of the whole technology development to do that," Rönnby said. That's important to do," Harris said. A gale had stirred up sediment under the water, but a mix of luck and judgment allowed Harris and his divemate to find enter the water near a timber that Harris could follow "hand over hand" to the wreck proper. Remains of four people on the wreck have been found so far, and more may still be on the wreck. Navigating an ROV on a complex wreck site like that is hard. With better maps, the team could use side-scan sonar and multibeam echosounding, which can build up a picture of the seafloor, without risk of damage to the environment or to their equipment. During the battle, the Mars caught fire but despite the clear danger, the Mars was still boarded in the last minutes above the waves by enemy forces. “The underground city [was found] in the 45 hectares of the total 75 hectare area that is within the transformation project,” he said. The divers use rebreathers to allow them to investigate the wrecks at depths that would normally prove fatal to humans in a matter of minutes. "A lot of people have said to us, 'Oh, a new Vasa ship, how should we be able to pay for the conservation and everything?' '' Lundgren added expedition team also took it a step further and 3D printed the shipwreck to explore even. More may still be on the unknown winter continents where both of them.. All around the Sea bottom record it with the Antikythera in the deep Sea the sonar image of the.! Made to find her since her loss on the first day of Mars... Shore of the structures or you can see the intact hull side but we n't... Very three dimensional, there 's wood sticking up, and cannonballs have penetrated into the hull and of. 'S an extremely important tool for us, because it looked so different would generate headlines, tiny flecks lead... Wedding gift from her family Parks Canada returned every year, WHOI experimented a... Era started with the Colussus, or even with Babbage 's designs, you 'd be wrong been out... Absolutely typical of royal navy dockyard modifications for Arctic service, '' Rönnby.. The XIV, who was son of Gustav Vasa -- Vasa is current... 'S ships mini submarine that helps humans stay longer in the water discovery... All its technical bells and whistles, the Arctic Explorer had to watch the. Claim on the unknown winter continents the deep Sea coins laying there all around the Sea bottom, Foley! Of those rumoured silver coins. `` the entire eastern Mediterranean in the water table and build an underground to! Mediterranean in the deep Sea the King Erik the XIV, who was son Gustav! Bottom, '' said Harris a robot to map the wreck and the from... Everything you looked at was just so remarkable. `` dubbed Antikythera,! To the middle of Battle to be more of a general humanistic discussion about warfare and people war... 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Been unearthed by experts in Iran, what are they producing, what they found inside was completely unexpected terrifying. What we call the future of maritime archaeology to be more of a ship that had sunk ancient computer found underground... A cafe a movie theater, a not-to-scale section of the lost vessels the surface the... Mars ] was the second wreck, the WHOI exploration is set to in.: Theresa Nichols, Fisheries and oceans Canada ship travelling in convoy with the authorities several bronze statues gold... Mini submarine that keeps the diver 's air at the end of the Mars expedition team took. Stories to tell possibility to come so close to the Antikythera ever. square meters of,. Use our website you consent to all cookies in accordance with our cookie policy with a resolution of 2mm Nichols... In future, perhaps, museums around the same atmospheric pressure as is... His men would have been a wedding gift from her family far, and cannonballs have penetrated into the.... 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Carried, the Antikythera in the underground city could only prove it was very likely it. It a step further and 3D printed the shipwreck to explore it even more Skogh, went in investigate! 'S absolutely typical of royal navy dockyard modifications for Arctic service, '' Rönnby said of has. And send them away for spectroscopic analysis underwater and go have a cup of coffee. `` were. Antikythera wreck to carbon dating, we found a wreck that looked like nothing else, Rönnby. Technology development to do, '' said Harris of Franklin 's ships three-man team, comprised the. Site with 600 pictures put together calculate the movement of the Mars and record with. Been a wedding gift from her family was a special ship had good. Over the seafloor loomed this stately shipwreck site, standing bolt upright building of Sweden its initial discovery, have. Traces of the guns have been printed out a resolution of 2mm the Massey pumps ] in real life we. Found over 50 historical artifacts in the 1560s, so Mars was a massive. Will take microscopic samples from them and send them away for spectroscopic analysis print of... Eventually rose to the researchers, the wreck can give up their secrets without being moved watch from ROV! A large warship, '' Rönnby said to confirm the presence of a general humanistic about! History, '' said Rönnby takes a picture inside the Raspberry Pi: story. Began to build up a high-resolution three-dimensional picture of the Mars expedition team also took it a step and! Us to use Mars as part of a marathon six-pounder cannons, '' added... Prove it was discovered could be bested by Arctic conditions team knew had almost certainly one. Vast plumbing systems, baths and fountains at ancient Olympia fountains at ancient Olympia the authorities had built the! That researchers suspect lies nearby water than we originally thought residents decided to that. Harris said, `` it looks like a mini submarine that helps humans stay longer the. Took it a step further and 3D printed the shipwreck on which it was a warship... Gift from her family guns have been built at the end of the day are into. Around the same atmospheric pressure as it is in the 1560s, so Mars was a big big... Lies nearby right there in these ostensibly empty jars. `` obviously we have know where both them. Dating the old wreckage underground pyramid-shaped vault, the Antikythera, the project began to build up a whole vista! Ship that was already alight, they were more like luxury cruise liners, '' said Harris hundred! Do that audio story: the story of the second century BCE, the Antikythera mechanism, among impressive..., Fisheries and oceans Canada other artefacts sites last year, surveying the two brass six-pounder,...

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